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Transactions


If your JDBC Connection is in auto-commit mode, which it is by default, then every SQL statement is committed to the database upon its completion.

That may be fine for simple applications, but there are three reasons why you may want to turn off the auto-commit and manage your own transactions:
  • To increase performance,
  • To maintain the integrity of business processes,
  • To use distributed transactions.
Transactions enable you to control if, and when, changes are applied to the database. It treats a single SQL statement or a group of SQL statements as one logical unit, and if any statement fails, the whole transaction fails.

To enable manual- transaction support instead of the auto-commit mode that the JDBC driver uses by default, use the Connection object's setAutoCommit() method. If you pass a boolean false to setAutoCommit( ), you turn off auto-commit. You can pass a boolean true to turn it back on again.

For example, if you have a Connection object named conn, code the following to turn off auto-commit:

conn.setAutoCommit(false);

Commit & Rollback

Once you are done with your changes and you want to commit the changes then call commit() method on connection object as follows:

conn.commit( );

Otherwise, to roll back updates to the database made using the Connection named conn, use the following code:

conn.rollback( );

The following example illustrates the use of a commit and rollback object:

try{
//Assume a valid connection object conn
conn.setAutoCommit(false);
Statement stmt = conn.createStatement();
String SQL = "INSERT INTO Employees " +
"VALUES (106, 20, 'Rita', 'Tez')";
stmt.executeUpdate(SQL);
//Submit a malformed SQL statement that breaks
String SQL = "INSERTED IN Employees " +
"VALUES (107, 22, 'Sita', 'Singh')";
stmt.executeUpdate(SQL);
// If there is no error.
conn.commit();
}catch(SQLException se){
// If there is any error.
conn.rollback();
}

In this case, none of the above INSERT statement would success and everything would be rolled back.

For a better understanding, let us study the Commit - Example Code as discussed below.

Commit - Example Code

Following is the example, which makes use of commit and rollback described in the Transaction tutorial.

This sample code has been written based on the environment and database setup done in the previous chapters.

Copy and past the following example in JDBCExample.java, compile and run as follows:

//STEP 1. Import required packages
import java.sql.*;
public class JDBCExample {
// JDBC driver name and database URL
static final String JDBC_DRIVER = "com.mysql.jdbc.Driver";
static final String DB_URL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost/EMP";
71
// Database credentials
static final String USER = "username";
static final String PASS = "password";
public static void main(String[] args) {
Connection conn = null;
Statement stmt = null;
try{
//STEP 2: Register JDBC driver
Class.forName("com.mysql.jdbc.Driver");
//STEP 3: Open a connection
System.out.println("Connecting to database...");
conn = DriverManager.getConnection(DB_URL,USER,PASS);
//STEP 4: Set auto commit as false.
conn.setAutoCommit(false);
//STEP 5: Execute a query to create statment with
// required arguments for RS example.
System.out.println("Creating statement...");
stmt = conn.createStatement(
ResultSet.TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE,
ResultSet.CONCUR_UPDATABLE);
//STEP 6: INSERT a row into Employees table
System.out.println("Inserting one row....");
String SQL = "INSERT INTO Employees " +
"VALUES (106, 20, 'Rita', 'Tez')";
stmt.executeUpdate(SQL);
//STEP 7: INSERT one more row into Employees table
SQL = "INSERT INTO Employees " +
"VALUES (107, 22, 'Sita', 'Singh')";
stmt.executeUpdate(SQL);
//STEP 8: Commit data here.
System.out.println("Commiting data here....");
conn.commit();
//STEP 9: Now list all the available records.
String sql = "SELECT id, first, last, age FROM Employees";
ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql);
System.out.println("List result set for reference....");
printRs(rs);
//STEP 10: Clean-up environment
rs.close();
stmt.close();
conn.close();
}catch(SQLException se){
//Handle errors for JDBC
se.printStackTrace();
// If there is an error then rollback the changes.
System.out.println("Rolling back data here....");
try{
if(conn!=null)
conn.rollback();
}catch(SQLException se2){
se2.printStackTrace();
}//end try
}catch(Exception e){
//Handle errors for Class.forName
e.printStackTrace();
}finally{
//finally block used to close resources
try{
if(stmt!=null)
stmt.close();
}catch(SQLException se2){
}// nothing we can do
try{
if(conn!=null)
conn.close();
}catch(SQLException se){
se.printStackTrace();
}//end finally try
}//end try
System.out.println("Goodbye!");
}//end main
public static void printRs(ResultSet rs) throws SQLException{
//Ensure we start with first row
rs.beforeFirst();
while(rs.next()){
//Retrieve by column name
int id = rs.getInt("id");
int age = rs.getInt("age");
String first = rs.getString("first");
String last = rs.getString("last");
//Display values
System.out.print("ID: " + id);
System.out.print(", Age: " + age);
System.out.print(", First: " + first);
System.out.println(", Last: " + last);
}
System.out.println();
}//end printRs()
}//end JDBCExample

Now, let us compile the above example as follows:

C:\>javac JDBCExample.java
C:\>

When you run JDBCExample, it produces the following result:

C:\>java JDBCExample
Connecting to database...
Creating statement...
Inserting one row....
Commiting data here....
List result set for reference....
ID: 100, Age: 18, First: Zara, Last: Ali
ID: 101, Age: 25, First: Mahnaz, Last: Fatma
ID: 102, Age: 30, First: Zaid, Last: Khan
ID: 103, Age: 28, First: Sumit, Last: Mittal
ID: 106, Age: 20, First: Rita, Last: Tez
ID: 107, Age: 22, First: Sita, Last: Singh
Goodbye!
C:\>

Using Savepoints

The new JDBC 3.0 Savepoint interface gives you an additional transactional control. Most modern DBMS, support savepoints within their environments such as Oracle's PL/SQL.

When you set a savepoint you define a logical rollback point within a transaction. If an error occurs past a savepoint, you can use the rollback method to undo either all the changes or only the changes made after the savepoint.

The Connection object has two new methods that help you manage savepoints:
  • setSavepoint(String savepointName): Defines a new savepoint. It also returns a Savepoint object.
  • releaseSavepoint(Savepoint savepointName): Deletes a savepoint. Notice that it requires a Savepoint object as a parameter. This object is usually a savepoint generated by the setSavepoint() method.
There is one rollback (String savepointName) method, which rolls back work to the specified savepoint.

The following example illustrates the use of a Savepoint object:

try{
//Assume a valid connection object conn
conn.setAutoCommit(false);
Statement stmt = conn.createStatement();
//set a Savepoint
Savepoint savepoint1 = conn.setSavepoint("Savepoint1");
String SQL = "INSERT INTO Employees " +
"VALUES (106, 20, 'Rita', 'Tez')";
stmt.executeUpdate(SQL);
//Submit a malformed SQL statement that breaks
String SQL = "INSERTED IN Employees " +
"VALUES (107, 22, 'Sita', 'Tez')";
stmt.executeUpdate(SQL);
// If there is no error, commit the changes.
conn.commit();
}catch(SQLException se){
// If there is any error.
conn.rollback(savepoint1);
}

In this case, none of the above INSERT statement would success and everything would be rolled back.

For a better understanding, let us study the Savepoints - Example Code as discussed below.

Savepoints - Example Code

Following is the example, which makes use of setSavepoint and rollback described in the Transaction tutorial.

This sample code has been written based on the environment and database setup done in the previous chapters.

Copy and past the following example in JDBCExample.java, compile and run as follows:

//STEP 1. Import required packages
import java.sql.*;
public class JDBCExample {
// JDBC driver name and database URL
static final String JDBC_DRIVER = "com.mysql.jdbc.Driver";
static final String DB_URL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost/EMP";
// Database credentials
static final String USER = "username";
static final String PASS = "password";
public static void main(String[] args) {
Connection conn = null;
Statement stmt = null;
try{
//STEP 2: Register JDBC driver
Class.forName("com.mysql.jdbc.Driver");
//STEP 3: Open a connection
System.out.println("Connecting to database...");
conn = DriverManager.getConnection(DB_URL,USER,PASS);
//STEP 4: Set auto commit as false.
conn.setAutoCommit(false);
//STEP 5: Execute a query to delete statment with
// required arguments for RS example.
System.out.println("Creating statement...");
stmt = conn.createStatement();
//STEP 6: Now list all the available records.
String sql = "SELECT id, first, last, age FROM Employees";
ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql);
System.out.println("List result set for reference....");
printRs(rs);
// STEP 7: delete rows having ID grater than 104
// But save point before doing so.
Savepoint savepoint1 = conn.setSavepoint("ROWS_DELETED_1");
System.out.println("Deleting row....");
String SQL = "DELETE FROM Employees " +
"WHERE ID = 110";
stmt.executeUpdate(SQL);
// oops... we deleted too wrong employees!
//STEP 8: Rollback the changes afetr save point 2.
conn.rollback(savepoint1);
// STEP 9: delete rows having ID grater than 104
// But save point before doing so.
Savepoint savepoint2 = conn.setSavepoint("ROWS_DELETED_2");
System.out.println("Deleting row....");
SQL = "DELETE FROM Employees " +
"WHERE ID = 95";
stmt.executeUpdate(SQL);
//STEP 10: Now list all the available records.
sql = "SELECT id, first, last, age FROM Employees";
rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql);
System.out.println("List result set for reference....");
printRs(rs);
//STEP 10: Clean-up environment
rs.close();
stmt.close();
conn.close();
}catch(SQLException se){
//Handle errors for JDBC
se.printStackTrace();
// If there is an error then rollback the changes.
System.out.println("Rolling back data here....");
try{
if(conn!=null)
conn.rollback();
}catch(SQLException se2){
se2.printStackTrace();
}//end try
}catch(Exception e){
//Handle errors for Class.forName
e.printStackTrace();
}finally{
//finally block used to close resources
try{
if(stmt!=null)
stmt.close();
}catch(SQLException se2){
}// nothing we can do
try{
if(conn!=null)
conn.close();
}catch(SQLException se){
se.printStackTrace();
}//end finally try
}//end try
System.out.println("Goodbye!");
}//end main
public static void printRs(ResultSet rs) throws SQLException{
//Ensure we start with first row
rs.beforeFirst();
while(rs.next()){
//Retrieve by column name
int id = rs.getInt("id");
int age = rs.getInt("age");
String first = rs.getString("first");
String last = rs.getString("last");
//Display values
System.out.print("ID: " + id);
System.out.print(", Age: " + age);
System.out.print(", First: " + first);
System.out.println(", Last: " + last);
}
System.out.println();
}//end printRs()
}//end JDBCExample

Now, let us compile the above example as follows:

C:\>javac JDBCExample.java
C:\>

When you run JDBCExample, it produces the following result:

C:\>java JDBCExample
Connecting to database...
Creating statement...
List result set for reference....
ID: 95, Age: 20, First: Sima, Last: Chug
ID: 100, Age: 18, First: Zara, Last: Ali
ID: 101, Age: 25, First: Mahnaz, Last: Fatma
ID: 102, Age: 30, First: Zaid, Last: Khan
ID: 103, Age: 30, First: Sumit, Last: Mittal
ID: 110, Age: 20, First: Sima, Last: Chug
Deleting row....
Deleting row....
List result set for reference....
ID: 100, Age: 18, First: Zara, Last: Ali
ID: 101, Age: 25, First: Mahnaz, Last: Fatma
ID: 102, Age: 30, First: Zaid, Last: Khan
ID: 103, Age: 30, First: Sumit, Last: Mittal
ID: 110, Age: 20, First: Sima, Last: Chug
Goodbye!
C:\>
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