PYTHON - BASIC OPERATORSOperators are the constructs which can manipulate the value of operands. Consider the expression 4 + 5 = 9. Here, 4 and 5 are called operands and + is called operator. Types of Operators Python language supports the following types of operators.
Python Arithmetic Operators Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then:
Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then:
#!/usr/bin/python
a = 21 b = 10 c = 0 c = a + b print "Line 1 - Value of c is ", c c = a - b print "Line 2 - Value of c is ", c c = a * b print "Line 3 - Value of c is ", c c = a / b print "Line 4 - Value of c is ", c c = a % b print "Line 5 - Value of c is ", c a = 2 b = 3 c = a**b print "Line 6 - Value of c is ", c a = 10 b = 5 c = a//b print "Line 7 - Value of c is ", c When you execute the above program, it produces the following result:
Line 1 - Value of c is 31
Line 2 - Value of c is 11 Line 3 - Value of c is 210 Line 4 - Value of c is 2 Line 5 - Value of c is 1 Line 6 - Value of c is 8 Line 7 - Value of c is 2 Python Comparison Operators These operators compare the values on either sides of them and decide the relation among them. They are also called Relational operators. Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then:
Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then:
#!/usr/bin/python
a = 21 b = 10 c = 0 if ( a == b ): print "Line 1 - a is equal to b" else: print "Line 1 - a is not equal to b" if ( a != b ): print "Line 2 - a is not equal to b" else: print "Line 2 - a is equal to b" if ( a <> b ): print "Line 3 - a is not equal to b" else: print "Line 3 - a is equal to b" if ( a < b ): print "Line 4 - a is less than b" else: print "Line 4 - a is not less than b" if ( a > b ): print "Line 5 - a is greater than b" else: print "Line 5 - a is not greater than b" a = 5; b = 20; if ( a <= b ): print "Line 6 - a is either less than or equal to b" else: print "Line 6 - a is neither less than nor equal to b" if ( b >= a ): print "Line 7 - b is either greater than or equal to b" else: print "Line 7 - b is neither greater than nor equal to b" When you execute the above program it produces the following result:
Line 1 - a is not equal to b
Line 2 - a is not equal to b Line 3 - a is not equal to b Line 4 - a is not less than b Line 5 - a is greater than b Line 6 - a is either less than or equal to b Line 7 - b is either greater than or equal to b Python Assignment Operators Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then:
Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then:
#!/usr/bin/python
a = 21 b = 10 c = 0 c = a + b print "Line 1 - Value of c is ", c c += a print "Line 2 - Value of c is ", c c *= a print "Line 3 - Value of c is ", c c /= a print "Line 4 - Value of c is ", c c = 2 c %= a print "Line 5 - Value of c is ", c c **= a print "Line 6 - Value of c is ", c c //= a print "Line 7 - Value of c is ", c When you execute the above program, it produces the following result:
Line 1 - Value of c is 31
Line 2 - Value of c is 52 Line 3 - Value of c is 1092 Line 4 - Value of c is 52 Line 5 - Value of c is 2 Line 6 - Value of c is 2097152 Line 7 - Value of c is 99864 Python Bitwise Operators Bitwise operator works on bits and performs bit by bit operation. Assume if a = 60; and b = 13; Now in binary format they will be as follows:
a = 0011 1100
b = 0000 1101 ----------------- a&b = 0000 1100 a|b = 0011 1101 a^b = 0011 0001 ~a = 1100 0011 There are following Bitwise operators supported by Python language
#!/usr/bin/python
a = 60 # 60 = 0011 1100 b = 13 # 13 = 0000 1101 c = 0 c = a & b; # 12 = 0000 1100 print "Line 1 - Value of c is ", c c = a | b; # 61 = 0011 1101 print "Line 2 - Value of c is ", c c = a ^ b; # 49 = 0011 0001 print "Line 3 - Value of c is ", c c = ~a; # -61 = 1100 0011 print "Line 4 - Value of c is ", c c = a << 2; # 240 = 1111 0000 print "Line 5 - Value of c is ", c c = a >> 2; # 15 = 0000 1111 print "Line 6 - Value of c is ", c When you execute the above program it produces the following result:
Line 1 - Value of c is 12
Line 2 - Value of c is 61 Line 3 - Value of c is 49 Line 4 - Value of c is -61 Line 5 - Value of c is 240 Line 6 - Value of c is 15 Python Logical Operators There are following logical operators supported by Python language. Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20 then:
Python’s membership operators test for membership in a sequence, such as strings, lists, or tuples. There are two membership operators as explained below:
#!/usr/bin/python
a = 10 b = 20 list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ]; if ( a in list ): print "Line 1 - a is available in the given list" else: print "Line 1 - a is not available in the given list" if ( b not in list ): print "Line 2 - b is not available in the given list" else: print "Line 2 - b is available in the given list" a = 2 if ( a in list ): print "Line 3 - a is available in the given list" else: print "Line 3 - a is not available in the given list" When you execute the above program it produces the following result:
Line 1 - a is not available in the given list
Line 2 - b is not available in the given list Line 3 - a is available in the given list Python Identity Operators Identity operators compare the memory locations of two objects. There are two Identity operators as explained below:
#!/usr/bin/python
a = 20 b = 20 if ( a is b ): print "Line 1 - a and b have same identity" else: print "Line 1 - a and b do not have same identity" if ( id(a) == id(b) ): print "Line 2 - a and b have same identity" else: print "Line 2 - a and b do not have same identity" b = 30 if ( a is b ): print "Line 3 - a and b have same identity" else: print "Line 3 - a and b do not have same identity" if ( a is not b ): print "Line 4 - a and b do not have same identity" else: print "Line 4 - a and b have same identity" When you execute the above program it produces the following result:
Line 1 - a and b have same identity
Line 2 - a and b have same identity Line 3 - a and b do not have same identity Line 4 - a and b do not have same identity Python Operators Precedence The following table lists all operators from highest precedence to lowest.
For example, x = 7 + 3 * 2; here, x is assigned 13, not 20 because operator * has higher precedence than +, so it first multiplies 3*2 and then adds into 7. Here, operators with the highest precedence appear at the top of the table, those with the lowest appear at the bottom. Example
#!/usr/bin/python
a = 20 b = 10 c = 15 d = 5 e = 0 e = (a + b) * c / d #( 30 * 15 ) / 5 print "Value of (a + b) * c / d is ", e e = ((a + b) * c) / d # (30 * 15 ) / 5 print "Value of ((a + b) * c) / d is ", e e = (a + b) * (c / d); # (30) * (15/5) print "Value of (a + b) * (c / d) is ", e e = a + (b * c) / d; # 20 + (150/5) print "Value of a + (b * c) / d is ", e When you execute the above program, it produces the following result:
Value of (a + b) * c / d is 90
Value of ((a + b) * c) / d is 90 Value of (a + b) * (c / d) is 90 Value of a + (b * c) / d is 50 |